("COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Grey Whale Eschrichtius robustus Eastern North Pacific Population in Canada", 2004; "Eschrichtius robustus, Gray Whale", 1998), Little is known about perception and communication in gray whales. Jason S. Dunham and David A. Duffus, DIET OF GRAY WHALES (ESCHRICHTIUS ROBUSTUS) IN CLAYOQUOT SOUND, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA, Marine Mammal Science, 18, 2, (419-437), (2006). Rice, D., A. Wolman, H. Braham. Accessed Orlando, Florida 32887: Academic Press, Inc.. Obst, B., G. Hunt. Since 2002, the eastern north Pacific gray whale population has steadily increased. Gray whales inherit their mother's feeding grounds and are often seen, 1 year after they become independent, in their mother's feeding grounds. March 31, 2009 Eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) migrate annually along the west coast of North America. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service lists the western north Pacific gray whale population as "endangered" and indicates that the eastern north Pacific stock was delisted in 1994. the regions of the earth that surround the north and south poles, from the north pole to 60 degrees north and from the south pole to 60 degrees south. living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. MarineBio.org. Nevertheless, studies suggest that size may be a better indicator of sexual maturity than age. They are migratory and rely on a variety of coastal habitats. They are often hosts to dense infestations of skin parasites (e.g., barnacles and orange whale lice) that give their skin a rough and patchy appearance. Classification, To cite this page: 2004. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. During fall, eastern gray whales migrate along the west coast of North America and spend winter in waters of less than 4 m in depth. Additionally, the major breeding lagoons of the eastern Pacific population are protected by their inclusion in the El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve, limiting disturbances from boating, fishing, and coastal development. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 81/12: 1965-1972. March 16, 2009 Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. ("COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Grey Whale Eschrichtius robustus Eastern North Pacific Population in Canada", 2004; Heyning and Mead, 1997; Obst and Hunt, 1990; Oliver and Slattery, 1985; Rice, et al., 1984; Sund, 1975; Weitcamp, et al., 1992), Gray whales are considered opportunistic feeders and use group feeding strategies on schools of small fish during their southern migration. the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south. When presented killer whale "screams" from an underwater projector, the Due to their large size and consequent feeding requirements, gray whales cannot be held in captivity. the kind of polygamy in which a female pairs with several males, each of which also pairs with several different females. Observed and Maximum Rates of Increase in Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus. ("COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Grey Whale Eschrichtius robustus Eastern North Pacific Population in Canada", 2004; Heyning and Mead, 1997; Obst and Hunt, 1990; Oliver and Slattery, 1985; Rice, et al., 1984; Sund, 1975; Weitcamp, et al., 1992), The only non-human predator of gray whales is the killer whale, also known as the orca (Orcinus orca). Travis Kidd (author), Northern Michigan University, Alec Lindsay (editor), Northern Michigan University, John Berini (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor. Nearly 18% of all gray whales show evidence of orca attack, with juveniles being the most vulnerable. Body is varyingly colored by patches of barnacles and cyamid crustaceans. This material is based upon work supported by the However, the western Pacific population is separately listed as “critically endangered”. Marine, hauling out on floating platforms. 1998. Accessed Journal of Mammalogy, 67/1: 179-182. "Eschrichtius robustus, Gray Whale" Read the Management Plan for the Eastern Pacific Grey Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) in Canada (2011) here. Sprogis, J.P. Arnould, L. BejderNoninvasive unmanned aerial vehicle provides estimates of the energetic cost of reproduction in humpback whales. Eastern north Pacific gray whales use shallow arctic feeding grounds during the summer, which are located in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Accessed ("COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Grey Whale Eschrichtius robustus Eastern North Pacific Population in Canada", 2004; Bryant, 1995; Clapham, et al., 1999; Jones, et al., 1984; Rice, et al., 1984; Sullivan, et al., 1983; Reilly, et al., 2008), Gray whales feed in shallow coastal waters with muddy or sandy bottoms. 1984. Sound production of gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus, along their migration route: a new approach to signal analysis J Acoust Soc Am . Accessed Four specific locations have been identified as important calving grounds for eastern gray whales: Laguna Ojo de Liebre, Guerrero Negro, Bahia Magdalena, and Laguna San Ignacio. However, this has not been well documented, as fewer studies have focused on this population. Prior to diving, they raise their tail flukes out of the water, after which they may stay submerged for as long as 15 minutes. Gray whales have a high reproductive rate, relative to other baleen whales. 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