2014 and then updated on February 2015 in order to include papers published in 2014. An example of this question is below: “Before selecting the amount of money, the user must: b) at least insert the chip card in the ATM, c) at least enter the fingerprint OR a sample voice, d) at least enter the PIN, and fingerprint or a voice sample. Furthermore, the work proposing an SPL use case template often does not empirically compare the proposed template with other templates. The comprehension tests were made in order to evaluate the comprehension related to each use case considered in the experimental study (in the same way as was done in (Mustafa 2010)). This tutorial explains how to create a detailed Use Case Template Text. Finally, in the fourth step we removed the duplicate templates. After the study execution it was possible to answer the proposed experiment research questions. two steps identified with the same number are alternative steps), had the best results. That is, it specifies how a user interacts with a system and how the system responds to the user actions. The accuracy was chosen as the measure of comprehension because we believe that the volunteers could only answer the questions of the comprehension test correctly if they understand the SPL use cases being evaluated. a use case instance • use case - a collection of related success and failure scenarios, describing actors … The requirements engineering process of an SPL should include strategic and effective techniques for analyzing domains, finding similarities and variabilities, and dealing with a community of stakeholders probably larger than those for single-system requirements elicitation (Cheng and Atlee 2007; Northrop and Clements 2007). The name should start with a strong verb. Furthermore, in this template there is an attribute for specifying which domain of the product line it is and another one that designates which product member the use case is specified for. u 2013). An interesting feature of this template is the presence of questions related to the variation points that are used to guide the instantiation of the product use cases. For a limited time, find answers and explanations to over 1.2 million textbook exercises for FREE! : there is a statistically significant difference in the SPL use cases’ comprehensibility using the evaluated template structures; H Use Case Identification. Table 3 presents the papers found at Step 03 and the included papers based on the EC4. Kuloor and Eberlein (2002) described and compared requirements engineering techniques used in existing SPL practices. Typically, the name expresses the objective or observable result of the use case, such as Withdraw Cash in the case of an automatic teller machine. Advice. Cockburn, A (2000) Writing Effective Use Cases. 2004)). http://www.great.ufc.br/index.php/en.html. Product Management Insights. To define the unique role for each use case, you must document the relationship of the use case to the other behaviors of the system. This work is a partial result of the UbiStructure project supported by CNPq (MCT/CNPq 14/2011 - Universal) under grant number 481417/2011-7 and the Maximum project supported by FUNCAP (FAPs/INRIA/INS2i-CNRS 11/2011). The reason for using students in our study was the availability sampling technique. The actual use case is a textual representation illustrating a sequence of events. For this, the authors have described the four use cases in each template selected for the experiment. Gomaa, H (2004) Designing Software Product Lines with UML: from Use Cases to Pattern-based Software Architectures. Section 3 presents the proposed template for textual description of use cases for CASPL and the preliminary evaluation of this template. (2014) evaluated their requirements engineering approach, the Feature-Driven Requirements Engineering approach (FeDRE), through a case study for developing an SPL of mobile applications for emergency notifications. In the template of Choi et al., the tags are used only for marking variation points in use case scenarios of SPL. 2013) have been proposed based on previous ones, these studies do not empirically compare their proposed templates with previously defined ones. The use case brief is a two-to-six sentence description of use case behavior, mentioning only the most significant activity and failures. Subjects who selected the Step Identifier structure as the best structure, for example, reported that it has a simple description and an objective, clean, organized, and compact structure. Neto, PAMS, Machado IC, Mcgregor JD, Almeida ES, Meira SRL (2011) A systematic mapping study of software product lines testing. 7): The first activity in the study was related to answering a pre-experiment questionnaire. (2013) is an adaptation of Eriksson et al.‘s template (Eriksson et al. Is the identification done through the PIN? Chap. This quick use case definition allows for agile development of use cases. Mandatory features are those available on all systems built within the family. In this case, we have used the MannWhitney test (Wohlin et al. Name and Description. The SPL use cases’ comprehensibility was measured based on the subjects’ efficiency in understanding the SPL use cases used and performing the comprehension tasks. A use case represents a user goal that can be achieved by accessing the system or software application. In the SPL paradigm, the requirements engineering activity needs to cope with common and variable requirements for the whole set of products in the family (Oliveira et al. Bragança and Machado (2006)) or activity diagrams (e.g. 2010; Neiva 2009). Colanzi, TE, Assunção WKG, Trindade DFG, Zorzo CA, Vergilio SR (2013) Evaluating different strategies for testing software product lines. Use Case. In the search process, we considered the studies published until December 2014. Finally, the third phase, Results, is responsible for reporting the study outcomes based on a classification scheme. The linking of advice use cases with affected base use cases is based on syntactical matching of joinpoints and pointcut expressions. This article also demonstrates a convention for organizing a use case’s steps based on the established approach of writing use case steps nonredundantly by using flows of different kinds. PASN and ISS defined the experiment design. Transformations are described in transfor-mation … 2007; Oliveira et al. Kuloor, C, Eberlein A (2002) Requirements engineering for software product lines In: Proceedings of the International Conference Software Systems Engineering and Their Applications.. CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, France. Detailed Use Case Specification. Take a Quick Tour of Visual Use Case (Flash movie, 1MB) To save these files, right click on the link and choose 'Save Target As'. A use case is normally named as a verb-phrase and given a brief informal textual description. On the other hand, the alternative variants are described through the tags and . Commun ACM 50(6): 62–67. Template and example for a use case textual description.docx - Template for a use case textual description Use Case Name Summary Actor(s Preconditions, 1 out of 2 people found this document helpful. You can use this example diagram to draw similar use cases in Creately. c Contact Author. In addition, we expect the same results for bigger use cases. Due to this fact, we have conducted a controlled … This section provides a description of each section in the use case template. This was also the preferred structure according to the results of the post-experiment questionnaire. 2013). The results for the time and accuracy variables are given in the Table 9 (for the group with the final question correct). In this paper, we propose an abstract syntax for textual use case description as a meta-model extension of the UML Speci cation. Secondly, this work presents an evaluation of the comprehensibility of SPL use cases specified in these templates through a controlled experiment with 48 volunteers. In the SPL paradigm the concepts of feature and feature model are essential. 2012; Bragança and Machado 2006; Gomaa 2004). In this approach, the use cases model is composed of use cases and aspectual use cases. 0 a Our Systematic Mapping also addresses the variability modelling, but with focus on the specification of the variability in the user’s perspective through the textual use cases. Carol Britton, Jill Doake, in A Student Guide to Object-Oriented Development, 2005. 2014) and two SLRs on requirements engineering within SPL Engineering (Alves et al. c Experts recommend that use case diagrams be used to supplement a more descriptive textual use case. We did this to avoid the compensatory equalization of treatments, compensatory rivalry, and resentful demoralization (Wohlin et al. It is helping to make a diagram process included in the use case template. This is also known as a use case brief. University of Maryland, University College, Phase 2 - Use Case and Sequence Diagram.docx, Chapter 7 - Inheritance, Polymorphism, and Scope, Chapter 6 - Object-Oriented Software Design and Implementation, University of Maryland, University College • SWEN 645, University of Maryland, Baltimore County • DPTP 558, University of Maryland, University College • SWEN 603, University of Maryland, University College • SWEN 656. Sig.”). 4. Inf Syst 35(6): 615–636. From these, the newest paper (Alferez et al. (2003) and Jirapanthong (2009) were excluded due to the first criterion; and the templates proposed by Kamsties et al. Figure 1 presents the use case “Withdraw Money” in the template found in the Bragança and Machado work (Bragança and Machado 2005). Besides that, this structure was selected as preferred by only 3% of the volunteers according to the post-experiment questionnaire (considering only the 134 valid executions with the final question correct). Example of use case with Specific Section. Assuncao, WKG, Trindade DFG, Colanzi TE, Vergilio SR (2011) Evaluating test reuse of a software product line oriented strategy In: Proceedings of the 12th Latin American Test Workshop (LATW).. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. J Electronic Testing 29: 9–24. The generic template is … For this comparison, they used five criteria: SPL activity support, RE covered tasks, MDD strategy support, the degree of automatic support with a given tool, and the type of validation of the proposals. (2003) and Choi et al. According to research, use cases are mostly applied in building and providing logic in business development projects. Therefore, aiming to achieve the goal, the experimental study was designed to answer the following research questions: ERQ1: Which of the evaluated template structures favors the SPL use cases’ comprehensibility? Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. All the use cases are small, since a larger example would demand effort incompatible with the time available for the study. Jeyaraj, A, Sauter VL (2007) An empirical investigation of the effectiveness of systems modeling and verification tools. We report the systematic mapping study in this section. 1, 207–214.. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. The detailed use case is a textual representation illustrating a sequence of events together with other related use case information in certain format. Finally, Reinhartz-Berger and Sturm (2014) presented a controlled experiment where they examined the comprehensibility of domain models specified in a UML-based SPL Engineering method. 2004). Then, we present the results and discussion. (2013) from this controlled experiment, because the use of the Alternative Scenarios structure is similar to common use case structures, since the variations are described just like alternative scenarios. Eriksson et al. Thus, in an SPL, the requirements define applications and their features. 2013). It reminds people of what is going on in the use case. With the Tags structure, we have found six templates (Bertolino and Gnesi 2003; Bragança and Machado 2005; Choi et al. Cockburn et.al. 2008; Gallina and Guelfi 2007; Jirapanthong 2009; Kamsties et al. & Santos Neto, P.A. We also looked for work that compares requirements engineering approaches for SPL, and, addressing this issue, we found four studies (Alferez et al. Each step needs to be … October 8, 2009 By Michael Shrivathsan. y In a recent post, I … In this template, additional sections are used to specify performance, usability, and security requirements. 1 INTRODUCTION The Uni ed Modeling Language (UML) de nes a use case as \the speci cation of a … The Specific Section is present in two templates (Gomaa 2004; Nguyen 2009) while the Alternative Scenarios is used in one template (Oliveira et al. 2013), which are frequently used in many systematic reviews, and the search string considered synonyms and acronyms. (2005), the Step Identifier structure is used to describe the variabilities. The use case specification will be based on the activity diagram. (2005) supports all of the five variability types. The use case description is a narrative document that describes, in general terms, the required functionality of the use case. Furthermore, the final product is also identified within the use cases. Business Analysis. In spite of being interesting empirical studies, none of them dealt with the SPL paradigm, addressed by the experiment described in this paper. The article you are reading now uses a generic use case specification template that combines the most common elements from the available templates. In a previous work (Santos et al. provides a use case template which is exhaustive example of an textual description [4]. However, in contrast to their work, we do not focus on use cases diagrams. We used the process defined by Neto et al. Five of the templates were not classified in this category because they do not specify explicitly the type of variability in the use cases description. Wieringa, R, Maiden N, Mead N, Rolland C (2006) Requirements engineering paper classification and evaluation criteria: a proposal and a discussion. We have used the Kruskal Wallis test (Hollander and Wolfe 1999; Wohlin et al. Section 4 describes the related work. Dari tiap tiap use case yang ada akan kita deskripsikan secara detail dengan Use Case Description. You can clarify the use case further by refining the use case into a formal use case or informal use case format (free template). Dahan et al. Use Case Template - what is a Use Case in simple words is it’s a textual description of the interactions – presented as a flow of plain steps – between a role and a system, with the purpose of allowing the role to accomplish a certain goal. 2009; Galster et al. All the developers had used textual use cases descriptions professionally, but three of them had never studied SPL. UC10) Description (A couple of sentences or a paragraph describing the basic idea of the use case) Goal (The business goal of the initiating actor) Preconditions (List the state(s) the system can be in before this use case starts) Assumptions Morelli, LB, Nakagawa EY (2011) A panorama of software architectures in game development In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering(SEKE), 752–757.. In this case, the significance value for time and accuracy do not exceed 0.05. Each unit has a specific role within the overall functionality of the system. This paper describes a Use Case Description Quality Checklist that acts as a check on the quality of the written description. The system adds that album to the album library. Within this category, six studies (Bertolino and Gnesi 2003; Bragança and Machado 2005; Choi et al. The keywords in this category are: Optional: The use case template supports the specification of optional steps; Mandatory alternative exactly 1: The use case template supports the specification of mutually exclusive alternatives for one mandatory step; Mandatory alternative at least 1: The use case template supports the specification of alternatives for one mandatory step out of which at least one must be selected; Optional alternative exactly 1: The use case template supports the specification of mutually exclusive alternatives for one optional step; Optional alternative at least 1: The use case template supports the specification of alternatives for one optional step out of which at least one must be selected. For this mapping study, we defined just one inclusion criterion: (IC1) the study presents a template for textual use cases description of an SPL. 2010; Jeyaraj and Sauter 2007; Mustafa 2010; Reinhartz-Berger and Sturm 2014). Bonifácio, R, Borba P (2009) Modeling scenario variability as crosscutting mechanisms In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Conference on Aspect-oriented Software Development, 125–136.. ACM, New York, NY, USA. For this purpose, there are several use case templates available in the literature to describe the functional requirements of an SPL. Create Unique and Explanatory Names. Table 10 presents the results of the hypothesis testing performed in order to compare the results related to time to complete the experiment tasks and the accuracy of the task execution. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40411-015-0020-3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40411-015-0020-3, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in RQ3: Which variability types can be modeled in textual use cases of an SPL? Scope Use Case - Description Most diagrams require some kind of textual narrative to help interpret the diagram properly. The goal of the controlled experiment was to evaluate the SPL use cases’ comprehensibility provided by the template structures. The steps must not mention how the system does something. u Chen et al. With this mapping study, we found twelve use case templates for an SPL. 2005) and two other approaches to modularity, expressiveness, and stability through the specification and evolution of a car crash crisis management system SPL. c We merged the categories Research Type and Variability Description in a systematic map (Fig. (2013) was classified as Validation Research, because it presents hypotheses and statistical tests. The execution of an experimental study with all twelve templates found would be costly, since the use of each template requires a lot of training and is time consuming. In this scenario, textual requirements and use cases are often used for describing SPL functional requirements (Alves et al. In this way, these steps can be executed or not. Output is simple HTML report. Regarding the study language, the choice of the English language is justified to make this mapping study replicable and feasible. The keywords in this category are: Tags: The use case template uses tags (e.g. •Textual or tabular descriptions •User stories •Diagrams . Brief description: Describes the role and purpose of the use case. Revista de Sistemas e Computação (RSC Journal) 2: 3–13. The variable time spent was measured by collecting the time spent in minutes to answer the comprehension test in each task. Each step should state what the user does and/or what the system responds. Flow of events On the other hand, there is some empirical work with the templates identified in this SM (Alferez et al. Many business events occur at the interface point between the business and one of the external entities with which it … We also found evidence that the specification of variabilities at the end of the use cases favors the comprehension of them and the use of questions associated to the variation points in the use cases improves the understanding of use cases. Alternatively a Use Cases may describe the interaction between two systems where no human is involved and in this case the Actor is the external system. (2007) and Oliveira et al. The use case model captures the requirements of a system. The use case diagram uses a narrative for each use case. With this structure the volunteers spent less time on the tasks and achieved a greater accuracy than by using other structures. Instead, a proper use case diagram depicts a high-level overview of the relationship between use cases, actors, and systems. In the first phase, Research Directives, the protocol and the research questions are established. Twenty one were undergraduate Computer Science students, 20 were graduate students (16 MSc and 4 PhD) in Computer Science, and seven were developers working at GREat - Group of Networking, Software and Systems Engineering (GREat 2015).
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