The citadel of Derbent is located upon a lofty enclosure of three slopes, and it is protected by enormous walls, which are 2.5-3.2 m (8.2-10.5 ft) thick, 10-15 m (33-49 ft) in height, and 700 m (2297 ft) in length. Tuscany panels 5. The modern city center grew near the seafront, and it expanded rapidly in the 20th century CE. Derbent remained relatively prosperous as it changed hands from the Arabs to the Seljuk Turks to the Azeris to the Mongols and Timurids, and back to the Persians over the course of seven centuries. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Cast iron panels Like our balusters, our steel scrolls are made with both round and square material. One of the most mysterious places, perhaps, in all of Central Asia – the famous mountain pass - Iron gate, located in the Baysun district on the territory of the village of Derbent. The southern region of Uzbekistan is fascinating for its ancient monuments, natural attractions and cultural heritage. The citadel contains a number of important archaeological remains, ancient and medieval structures, and even an Islamic bathhouse. Derbent’s old district contains mosques, elegant old homes, and the ruins of a medieval caravanserai. In the Middle ages, the pass occupied an important strategic place, as it was followed by numerous trade caravans and troops. Derbent contains two walls that are located approximately 300-400 m apart and extend nearly 4 km (2.5 miles) from the mountain citadel to the Caspian Sea. The Persian Sasanian Empire annexed the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania c. 252-253 CE, rendering it little more than a vassal. Curiously, Alexander the Great, has been traditionally associated with Derbent and its fortress; he is said to have ordered the construction to defend his newly conquered lands in the south from the barbarians to the north, but there is no substance to this legend. James is a writer and former Professor of History. The Khazars - allied to the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Heraclius (r. 610-641 CE) during the Third Perso-Turkic War (627-629 CE) - attacked and seized Derbent in 627 CE. The Arabs, who took Derbent in 728, made it a commercial and cultural center. Rebecca panels (fancy additions to your interior and exterior) 4. Sea Gate, the Russians as Derben, i.e. The southern region of Uzbekistan is fascinating for its ancient monuments, natural attractions and cultural heritage. Another Chinese chronicle tells of a city, a temple and an Iron gate that got its name because of it’s color and iron. The main attraction - the fortress complex of Derbent. This mountain is very high, but it has a passage through which you can cross it by a cleft that seems to have been made by human hands: high mountains rise on both sides, and it is flat and very deep. Break Free of the Iron Wall. Derbent Derbent occupies the western Caspian Sea coast, close to the mouth of Samur River in the South and Rubas River in the North, and the Sukhodol River, which forms the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains. The gates were a popular subject in medieval travel literature, starting with the Alexander Romance in a version from perhaps the 7th century. https://www.ancient.eu/Derbent/. ", Gadjiev, M. "On the Construction Date of the Derbend Fortification Complex. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaDhul-Qarnayn with the help of some jinn, building the Iron Wall to keep the barbarian Gog and Magog from civilized peoples. VII, pp. These Iron gates owns señor Tamurbek. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description o the sack o Derbent bi the hordes o Tong Yabghu o the Wastren Turkic Khaganate in 627. A strategic fortress at the Iron Gates was established by the Persians in the late 5th or early 6th cent. Probably after 508, though the date is disputed, the long fortification walls at Besh Barmak and Šīrvān/Gil’ginchaĭ were constructed in a combination of mud brick, stone blocks, and baked bricks; as they probably served as models for the massive rebuilding of the fortifications at Darband (Khan-Magomedov, 1979, p. 40), their construction serves as a terminus post quem for the latter. One of the most interesting conclusions made by the historian Eduard Rtveladze is about the place of refuge on this territory of the father of Roxana, the wife of Alexander the Great - Oxyart. Construction of the current citadel, fortified walls, and city walls began c. 570 CE at the request of Shah Khosrow I (531-579 CE) who is widely remembered by Persians today as one of their greatest rulers. Last modified October 01, 2018. Shop Wayfair.ca this Cyber Week for the best Cyber Week Sales On Stair Tread Rugs. And there is no other passage to enter the lands of Samarkand except through it; nor can the inhabitants of the Samarkand Empire enter the lands of India except through this passage. The best result they achieved was 4th place in Zone 2, Subgroup 2 of the Soviet Second League in 1969. 2) The wall in Central Asia near Bukhara and Tirmiz in a place called Derbent. Orchards and vineyards are cultivated. Dhu l-Qarnayn directs them to bring pieces of iron, which are melted in a fire to form a wall that can neither be scaled nor pierced, barring the way between two cliffs. Under Persian Safavid rule (1501-1736 CE), Derbent lay close to the frontier region with the Ottoman Empire and Russia. ", Cuneo, P. "LE MURA DI DERBENT: Note sulla topografia e la morfologia urbana di una cittaÌ€-stato del limes islamico nell'area caucasica. Derbent’s commercial districts lie close to the waterfront and thus between the parallel defense walls. Wiener, J. He defends the Kingdom of Samarkand from the side of smaler India. The famous Arab geographer Al-Yaqoubi tells about a 9th-century city in Sughd and also mentions this passage. Derbent’s success as a city and importance in history is rooted in its special geographic location. They called the city “Bab al-Abwab” or the “Gate of Gates.” They associated the city with Surah Al-Kahf in the Qu'ran, which narrates Alexander the Great's efforts to construct a gigantic iron gate to keep people from the north out of Persia. Reply. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. In the middle of this passage there is the village piled above him at the top of a high mountain. 1) The Great Wall of China which was built by the Chinese King Fagfor 3460 years after Prophet Adam was put on the Earth. “C” shaped scrolls 2. (16th-century Persian miniature)The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog ) from … Derbent’s success as a city & importance in history is rooted in its special geographic location. It was the Greek historian Herodotus who first mentioned Derbent's unusual geographical features in his writings about Scythian activities in the Near East; however, archaeologists working in the 1970s CE have shown that the hilltop on which Derbent's citadel now rests has been settled since the 8th century BCE. 2) The wall in central Asia near Bukhara and Tirmidh in … For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. Although the area in and around Derbent has been continuously inhabited since at least the 8th century BCE, Shah Yazdegerd II (r. 438-457 CE) of the Persian Sasanian Empire founded Derbent in 438 CE as a fortress city to curb raids from nomadic peoples into the Caucasus from Central Asia. It is near another Derbend in Central asia, Hissar District, about 150 miles south-east of Bukhara. Derbent was a dependable outpost of the Western world and an impregnable fortress perched on a mountaintop. People have long recognized the strategic importance of the area in and around Derbent. 78,000), SE European Russia, in Dagestan, on the Caspian Sea. Derbent dyĭrbyĕnt´ , city (1989 pop. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. She was described as a beautiful and blooming girl, with whom the General fell in love during a feast, when she led a dance in a circle. Under Arab rule, the city flourished as an entrepôt on the Silk Road, and the Arabs consistently strengthened and reinforced Derbent’s walls and citadel during their rule of the city until the late 10th century CE. A small town grew up around this ancient fortress in the 4th century BCE, and it is probable that the Roman general Pompey mentions this same town and fortress in the accounts of his c. 65 BCE campaign to the Caucasus. 3) The wall in Dagestan, Russia also known as Derbent near the Caspian sea. Derbent became a strang militar ootpost an harbour o the Sassanid empire. An even older fortress once existed here, and it was likely built by ancient peoples to withstand incursions from the Scythians. Iron Gates of Sogdiana. The Arabs referred to Derbent as Bab-al-Abvab, i.e. During the wall’s construction in the late 6th century CE, the Sasanians employed dry brickwork and made blocks on lime mortar. The modern name, a Persian word meaning “iron gates,” came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century, when the city was refounded by Kavadh of the Sassanian dynasty of Persia. And this passageway in the mountains is called the Iron gate, and there is no other passageway in the whole area but this one. Cite This Work In the "Sogdian rock" he hid during the capture of the Alexander’s attacks of natural fortresses in Sogdiana. Following the construction of Derbent's fortified walls by Shah Yazdegerd II (r. 438-457 CE), Derbent withstood numerous attacks over the next 300 years by the White Huns, Khazars, and other nomadic tribes that threatened the Persian heartlands. There was, however, a brief period of 12 years in which the Russians occupied Derbent from 1723-1735 CE. Archaeologists have excavated and discovered such monuments as ancient settlements, the foundation of a medieval caravanserai, and the defensive wall of the Kushan Kingdom. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. For several millennia, the mysterious Surkhandarya has attracted the attention of conquerors, travelers and explorers. A high stone wall ran down from the city towards the seashore, raising an impassible barrier across the road to Iran and the Roman Empire. The city’s population swelled to about 50,000, and the celebrated Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid (r. 786-809 CE) even lived in Derbent for a short duration. Derbent prospered for over 1,500 years under Persian, Arab, Turkish, Azeri, Mongol, Timurid, and Russian rule due to its position on the Silk Road and geostrategic importance as the gateway to the Caucasus. Their emergence, which is one of the signs of the Hour. The Dagestani capital, Makhachkala, is located 127.5 km (79 miles) to Derbent's northwest. It stands on a narrow strip of land that forms a natural pass (the Caspian, or Iron, Gates) between the Caucasian foothills and the sea. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Although it was taken once by the Ottoman Turks in 1583 CE following the Persian defeat at the Battle of Torches during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578-1590 CE), it remained in Persian hands until 1813 CE when the Russians occupied and annexed Derbent and Dagestan. (2018, October 01). We said, ‘O Dhu’l Qarnain, either punish them, or treat them with kindness.’ It was the shortest way to get from Bukhara, Samarkand and Chach (Shash) to Bactria and India, and back from India and Bactria to the Central cities of Central Asia. The city of Derbent is located in southern Russia in what is present-day Dagestan. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. An impressive mountain wall acted as a line of defense, spreading over a remarkable 40 km (25 miles) in a westward direction away from Derbent and through the Caucasus Mountains. It played professionally in 1966–1970, 1992 and 1995–1996. And they bring him a large income every year.". A total of nine out of the original 14 ancient gates survive. Books Gate of Gates, the Tartars, the Mongols and the Turks as Temir-Kapi, i.e. The Caucasus Mountains near Derbent are less 3 km (1.8 miles) from the shores of the Caspian Sea, meaning that the mountains almost extend directly to the seashore. gorge called Iron Gate - the only year-round passage that supposedly Alexander of Macedon blocked by a gigantic grid to prevent nomadic hordes coming from the north, that from time to time ransacked Sogdiana. Wiener, James B. In addition, Rui Gonzales de Clavijo mentioned another Iron gate that was located closer to the village of Derbent. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). Written by James Blake Wiener, published on 01 October 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Replies. Derbent. as a bulwark against northern invaders, survive. Iron Gate, the Georgians as Degvis-Kari, i.e. It is said that when other powerful nations will come to an end, the Chinese will rise and invade the whole world, eating humans. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. "Derbent." This article is about the city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Arabs were impressed by Derbent's size and wealth, and they greatly appreciated the citadel and the mighty walls of Derbent. Derbent, Baysun, Kashkadarya region, Uzbekistan Geography. 02 Dec 2020. How ever there was omce a Portal to this part of the Domension which is closed by Dhil Qarmain. Derbent contains two walls that are located approximately 300-400 m apart and extend nearly 4 km (2.5 miles) from the mountain citadel to the Caspian Sea. Thus the expected Yajooj Majooj wall location by some of the Kings in previous times was stated to be The Great Wall of China, built by the Chinese King Fagfor, almost about 3460 years after Prophet Adam was born. The Iron gate has been repeatedly mentioned in written sources of Chinese, Central Asian, and Arab historians and geographers.In 630, Xuanzang described in his notes the gorge as a defensive passage covered with iron and locked with a double-leaf gate. Sadly, one of the southern walls was destroyed in the late 19th century CE. In reality, … Enjoy the sale all month long! Originally 73 defense towers were constructed, and 46 of those were located in a portion of Derbent’s northern wall. He is a co-founder of Ancient History Encyclopedia and formerly was its Communications Director. A.D., and remains of the Caucasian Wall (also called Alexander's Wall), built by the Persians in the 6th cent. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Derbent/. Although a devastating description of the siege and Derbent’s fall is imparted by the 10th-century CE Armenian historian Movses Kaghankatvatsi in his The History of the Country of Albania, the Khazars soon lost Derbent themselves to the Arabs c. 643 CE. It played professionally in 1966–1970, 1992 and 1995–1996. Unknown February 24, 2018 at 5:39 AM. 18, Oybek str., Tashkent, 100015, Uzbekistan. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Think Again, Moscow Says" -- New York Times, "How has Russiaâ€™s oldest mosque stood for 1,300 years?" For several millennia, the mysterious Surkhandarya has attracted the attention of conquerors, travelers and explorers. Throughout its ancient and medieval history, Derbent was only one of two crossings through the Caucasus mountain range, and the city attracted the attention of foreign merchants traversing the famed Silk Road as well as the notice of great military powers.