May 10-28, 2021 SEO is one of our simple and effective web design best practices suggestions. Always see your test fail at least once. Voodoo sleeps are hard to understand and slow down your test suite. Best practices such as identifying the threats and anti-patterns in the system are very helpful. In fact, test planning should be independent of coding and can be done in parallel to the coding stage. Similarly, investing in tools that enhance efficiency and increase the team’s productivity is very important. After successful continuous integration and continuous delivery stages, the next software development best practices will involve releasing the product for actual use by the client—deployment. We don’t recommend listing everything, but rather focus on the most relevant and challenging ones. 13. Include the cost of clearing technical debt (refactoring) within the estimates for feature work. Equally important are test reporting, effective defect reporting, defect tracking and defect resolution. Michael’s personal website can be found at: 6 open source tools for staying organized, Try for free: Red Hat Learning Subscription, Inversion of Control Containers and the Dependency Injection Pattern, Clean Architecture: A Craftsman’s Guide to Software Structure and Design. Permit "innovative" use cases of your code though (i.e., don't do type checking for input validation unless you really need to). 20. A good PCB design is crucial for circuit performance and fabrication ease.The main areas of board design are the layout and routing. Software Architecture Guide. The third time you write the same piece of code is the right time to extract it into a general-purpose helper (and write tests for it). Table of Contents [ hide] 1 20 Best Practices for Software Development Results. Use of the inbuilt Java data structures. Instead of resisting the change, it is necessary to allow for a control mechanism to accommodate the necessary changes without impacting the existing functionality adversely. Helper functions within a test don't need testing; when you break them out and reuse them they do need tests. Updating and patching should be at the top of your application security best practices list any day of the week. 21. In practice, I’m a technical CEO, and thus I lack this business background. There are a number of times when successfully lab-tested projects fail during actual installation and deployment. Design principles are really well-established and battle-tested object-oriented best practices that you use as railguards. To be a better designer, there are some practices you should follow, that can be found here in PCB Design best practices guide. Team stakeholders can sit side by side to discuss and align these mini-milestones with the bigger milestones to meet the overall schedule and reduce inter-dependency delays. Loved #23 especially, owning more code than necessary is bad. As in "The module has some lies at the top explaining that behaviour.". This is coding for imaginary future use cases, and inevitably the code will become dead code or need rewriting because the future use case always turns out to work slightly differently from how you imagined it. Generally, particularly in tests, wait for a specific change rather than sleeping for an arbitrary amount of time. Opensource.com aspires to publish all content under a Creative Commons license but may not be able to do so in all cases. The more you have to mock out to test your code, the worse your code is. Write less code. And doing so can provide much-needed support for scientists fighting the pandemic and working to … These can be mapped to the estimated and planned hours and then used for fine-tuning and better risk management. (This particular point about comments being lies is controversial, by the way. Don’t do work in object constructors, which are hard to test and surprising. Michael is the author of IronPython in Action for Manning Publications, a core Python developer and the creator of the “mock” testing library for Python, now in the standard library as “unittest.mock”. With that in mind, feel free to disagree with these points, and we can discuss and debate them in the comments. Learn why backup frequency, simplification and cloud backup all matter. It is almost certain that requirements may change while the project is in development or is deployed. Keep sharing such nice updates. Our services and solutions enable businesses to accelerate their operations, slash costs and drive growth. It can really help them improve their coding habit. (Of course it’s still better to point out and change design mistakes at review time than never.). Code that can't be made obvious—working around an obscure bug or unlikely condition, or a necessary optimization—does need commenting. Let’s think about design and build robust and well-implemented systems, rather than growing organic monsters. Customer resolution software and defect tracking mechanisms are vital here. Selecting the one that suits the specific project is of utmost importance. The latest PCs, appropriate updated hardware, development and testing software and platforms, as well as automated tools will aid the team into putting their expertise to the right use and ensure a robust product. Recruiting talent with the right skills and relevant experience is vital to ensure the project’s success. Many a time, these documents are a part of the deliverables specified by the customer or stakeholders as well. Dependency injection is a useful coding pattern for being clear about what your dependencies are and where they come from. Reviews are found to be as effective and, in fact, much cheaper in catching defects than testing. It is used to increase the amount of visitors to your website by obtaining a high-ranking placement in the search engine results page (SERP). Objects are likely to be better than complex data structures. It is important to have effective measuring mechanisms to match the performance against these defined targets. Being good at problem-solving is one thing but to take your career to the next level, one must know how complex software projects are architected. DFM is also closely related … This is a non-definitive, non-exhaustive list of principles that should be applied with wisdom and flexibility. Assess and improve the quality of software design with respect to object-oriented principles. Otherwise you don’t know that you’re really testing anything. Only if there is a very good reason should code paths be left untested. Smaller, more tightly scoped unit tests give more valuable information when they fail—they tell you specifically what is wrong. Easy to read and work with: A well designed API will be easy to work with, and its resources and associated operations can quickly be memorized by developers who work with it constantly. From kids to adults, every individual relies heavily on technology backed by sound software applications and services for all manner of tasks. Obviously excessive repetition means reusable components can be created for convenience, but it’s much less of a concern than it is for production. Use of automated tools as well as well-established processes for these will ensure that bugs are caught at the earliest possible stage and resolved cost effectively. Almost anything by Robert Martin is worth reading, and Clean Architecture: A Craftsman’s Guide to Software Structure and Design is a good resource on this topic. Don't write code that you think you might need in future, but don't need yet. ... Software architecture design documents include the main architectural decisions. Not letting developers take pride in their work ensures you won’t get the best out of them. 30. Red Hat and the Red Hat logo are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Using the Python built-in types—and their methods—will be faster than writing your own types (unless you're writing in C). A successful new strategy invented in one project will benefit future projects as well. The actual adherence to and the application of the selected process is what plays out in the success of the project. The idea of comments degenerating over time into "lies" is one that I agree with. Joining any new company—with an established culture and programming practices—can be a daunting experience. 1.1 Recruit the Right Resources: 1.2 Select the Right Development Process: 1.3 Make Sound Estimations: 1.4 Define Smaller Milestones: 1.5 Define Requirements: 1.6 … From the other perspective, software development is a rapidly evolving industry, due to this demand and existing gaps in the market. 29. Another module which I’m sure will be very important for me is the one about Finance & Accounting. 27. Unit tests test to the unit of behavior, not the unit of implementation. Thanks to the Ansible team, and especially to Wayne Witzel, for comments and suggestions for improving the principles suggested in this list. Each level requires its own expertise, planning and execution. So where possible, treat your test objects as black boxes, testing through the public API without calling private methods or tinkering with state. The opinions expressed on this website are those of each author, not of the author's employer or of Red Hat. If it is code that may be restored, make a ticket and reference the commit hash for the code delete. Intermittently failing tests erode the value of your test suite, to the point in which eventually everyone ignores test run results because there’s always something failing. Once you know about your user, make sure to consider the following when designing your interface: Keep the interface simple. Best design practices in one book. Code is the enemy: It can go wrong, and it needs maintenance. What is Procure to Pay (P2P) Cycle and Its Business Impact, The Ten Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ( GAAP), Sources of Short-Term and Long-Term Financing for Working Capital, Applications of C / C++ in the Real World. These documents help to maintain understanding of the software, ensure trackability, and remove dependency upon the core development team. (Less overhead for tests means faster tests.) There’s no such thing as a slow unit test. Risk management and process adherence are also achieved through good project management. Balancing and distributing functionality over modules can make or break a project. Learn from enterprise dev and ops teams at the forefront of DevOps. Many projects fail or overshoot deadlines due to poor estimations. 3-2-1 backup strategy is still a critical approach to keep your data safe, but this guide shares six more best practices that your organization needs to defend against the risk of data failure or loss. __init__.py is not where programmers generally expect to find code, so it’s "surprising.". With tightly scoped unit tests testing behavior, your tests act as a de facto specification for your code. Reviews of all deliverables, code and documents must be done. It is also important to allocate the right work to the appropriate person. Changing APIs is a pain for us and for our users, and creating backwards incompatibility is horrible (although sometimes impossible to avoid). CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Writing tests first really helps with this as it forces you to think about the behavior of your code and how you're going to test it before you write it. You can't cover all possible permutations/combinations of state (combinatorial explosion), so that requires consideration. A good architecture is important, otherwise it becomes slower and more expensive to add new capabilities in the future. Write defensively. Consider the trade-off when introducing a new dependency. Software design patterns provide templates and tricks used to design and solve recurring software problems and tasks. Michael Foord has been a Python developer since 2002, spending several years working with C# and Go along the way. (Have objects, methods, and so on receive their dependencies as parameters rather than instantiating new objects themselves.) It outlines current good manufacturing practices (CGMPs) that govern design and development of a software medical device. What's readable to one person is a complete ball of mud to others. Even while the deployed software is operational, established processes and practices must be in place to support user problems and report them back to the maintenance team effectively. The competition is high, hence there are many companies trying to develop their own solutions to get a piece of the pie. Invensis Technologies is a leading IT-BPO service provider with 19+ years of experience in facilitating superior business performance for customers across North America, Europe, Australia and other parts of the world. Given below is a compilation of ten best practices for secure software development that reflect the experience and expertise of several stakeholders of the software development life-cycle (SDLC). 26. From a usability standpoint, stick with the usual best practices for web design but pay close attention to how the app works with a touchscreen – navigation/drop-downs function differently on a touchscreen, and button size and … Best Practices for Designing an Interface. Follow these guidelines to avoid common missteps that can affect software down the road. It is up to the designers to ensure that the selected approach is applied well so as to achieve “maximum cohesion, minimal coupling”. Strive to make your code readable and self-documenting through good naming practices and known programming style. 3. Generally a test that takes more than 0.1 seconds to run isn’t a unit test. I don't understand what you are saying in point number 2 - the first sentence, "tests don't need testing" seems to stand in contradiction to point 29. Delete code. Tests don't need testing. When working on performance issues, always profile before making fixes. Embracing UX design—integrating it early into the scientific software development process and adhering to industry best practices—is critical for improving researchers’ workflow. Best practices such as identifying the threats and anti-patterns in the system are very helpful. Coding best practices are a set of informal rules that the software development community employ to help improve the quality of software. YAGNI is a core element of agile programming. DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself) matters much less in tests than it does in production code. Download this free eBook: Teaching an elephant to dance. Make code correct first and fast second. 8. Get the highlights in your inbox every week. Our outsourcing/off-shoring offerings include IT Outsourcing Services, Call Center Outsourcing Services, Finance and Accounting (F&A) Outsourcing Services, Back Office BPO Services, End-to-End eCommerce Support Services, Healthcare BPO Services, Corporate Training, Digital Marketing Services and more. Test the code you write, not other people’s code. For more discussion on open source and the role of the CIO in the enterprise, join us at The EnterprisersProject.com. If you don't like comments, a good editor will strip the lies from your eyes. (For Python developers, PEP 8 should be your first stop for programming style and guidelines.). Code re usability is often an under-utilized aspect in design, which if leveraged well, can save a lot of effort and reduce costs in the long run. The best practice is to write a requirement document using a single, consistent template that all team members adhere to. Before defining a single field on a project, look over these 10 database design best practices that can dramatically simplify the development … Comment "returns" with values. 9 Immutable Laws of Network Design. From efficient tool based defect tracking to quality metrics, best practices have proven successful in judging the readiness of the project for subsequent stage or delivery. The above are some of the best practices that span most of the software development projects. 12. It is best to use proven estimation techniques. Having a CCB (Change Control Board) is one such successful method to accept or reject changes and facilitate the smooth inclusion of the change into the schedule and plan. Over-engineering (onion architecture) is as painful to work with as under-designed code. This is coding for imaginary ... 2. Break large chunks of code into smaller and reusable functions. If we write the code, then we know what it does, we know how to maintain it, and we’re free to extend and modify it as we see fit. Publish all these relevant code in the form of libraries. 100% coverage is a good place to start. Measuring coverage and rejecting PRs that reduce coverage percentage is one way to ensure you make gradual progress in the right direction. The waterfall model, agile methodology, iterative spiral approach are all proven ways of achieving success. Ending up with a method that needs 10 parameters for all its dependencies is good sign your code is doing too much, anyway. Use visual weight to prioritize important elements (such as contrasting color for primary call-to-action button). Usually the bottleneck is not quite where you thought it was. © All Rights Reserved © 2020 Invensis Pvt Ltd. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. Best Practice #3: Touchscreen UX. Developers may be hesitant to upgrade to the latest version of the software if it could break your product, but automated tools can help tremendously here. A good system architect will ensure that the suitable architecture is selected, keeping in mind the requirements as well as the limitations and constraints, if any. He possesses experience in planning, delivery, and addressing customer requirements. Software is integral to the modern society, be it for business or leisure. Peer reviews as well as expert reviews are very useful. If you put code in for a future use case, I will question it in a code review. These patterns and practices have been proven over many decades at organizations writing some of … Globals are bad. A test that stands up half the system to test behavior takes more investigation to determine what is wrong. Testing first encourages smaller, more modular units of code, which generally means better code. His diverse experience in managing projects and the associated team globally. Logic is easy to unit test if it is stateless and side-effect free. Don’t put code in __init__.py (except imports for namespacing). 16. The more code you have to instantiate and put in place to be able to test a specific piece of behavior, the worse your code is. 1.2. This could be due to a change in user/customer’s expectation, change in business needs or simply failing to predict a problem at the right time. The techniques given here help us a lot in developing the software successfully for the product engineering project. Effective requirement gathering forms the basis of aligning the finished product with the business objectives. Don’t write code you don’t need. Ideally if someone wants to understand your code, they should be able to turn to the test suite as "documentation" for the behavior. The best reference for this is Extreme Programming Explained, by Kent Beck. Effective deployment plans and a deployment checklist can be used to avoid such disasters. Unfortunately, a lot of dedicated efforts in software development go waste. ... Best practices. Balancing and distributing functionality over modules can make or break a project. YAGNI: " You Aint Gonna Need It ". A good maximum module size is about 500 lines. Programming is a balancing act, however. There are many readymade tools available for this purpose as well. They are called "best practices" not because we can precisely quantify their value but rather they are observed to be commonly used in industry by successful organizations. When I joined the Ansible team, I decided to write up the software engineering practices and principles I’ve learned over the years and to which I strive to work. Whether developing new software product, upgrading, improving or maintaining existing software, it is beneficial to keep in mind the best practices compiled below. largely due to their perceived ‘over-use’ leading to code that can be harder to understand and manage For some complex scenarios—such as testing behavior on a specific complex state to find an obscure bug—that may not be possible. Database Design Best Practices. Want to break free from the IT processes and complexities holding you back from peak performance? A good introduction to generators is "Generator Tricks for Systems Programmers," by David Beazley. A popular parameter is the SLA (Service Level Agreement). Comment the start and end of logic blocks and loops. 1. Best practices are a set of empirically proven approaches to software development. Design for the simple case first, with preferably zero configuration or parameterization, if that's possible. His publications will provide you essential knowledge and help to raise your career graph in the IT domain. Functions are better than types. Sound planning depends upon accurate estimates for schedule, budget, resources and efforts. A map without a legend and labels is "readable and self-documenting" but unnecessary torture. Many of the biggest and best software frameworks—like Java EE, Drupal, and Express—were built with this structure in mind, so many of the applications built with them naturally come out in a lay… Tweaking estimates to unrealistically short-schedule a project will most likely end in disaster. Design Patterns is a classic programming book that every engineer should read. To do this, you need to modularize your code. This does make API signatures more complex, so it is a trade-off. The development life-cycle depends heavily on the process adopted. Check input and fail on nonsensical input or invalid state as early as possible, preferably with an exception or error response that will make the exact problem clear to your caller. Fail fast. Unit testing, integration testing, functionality testing, system testing and performance testing are some of the levels of testing. "Not Invented Here" is not as bad as people say. 14. Java vs Python : Which is Best Programming Language? Throughout the software industry, several best practices are widely followed. Separating stateful code and code with side-effects into smaller functions makes them easier to mock out and unit test without side-effects. In practice, few people update comments when things change. As important as the actual software itself, are the documents that support it –project plan, requirement specifications, High Level Design (HLD), Low Level Design (LLD), test plans, test reports, status reports and user documentation. If performance is a consideration, try to work out how to use the standard built-in types rather than custom objects. This is like saying that new tires end up being worn out, so drive only on smooth roads and only downhill, so you don't have to use tires. Great. In fact, quality representatives and quality analysts are key skilled experts that some organizations hire, who help to audit the projects for quality. 2. They can be used as a reference in future by someone else, who might work on or use the software. 22. I still think it’s correct, and Kernighan and Pike, authors of The Practice of Programming, agree with me.). You have entered an incorrect email address! 9. Object oriented approach is one such technique that ensures modularity. Infrastructure, frameworks, and libraries for testing need tests. The software design should be reviewed for compliance with overall design objectives, including: A clear understanding of the user environment, requirements, and system analyst specifications; Use of best practices in software design, including effective design strategies, modularity, performance, and … We’re not always building a rocket ship. The fact is that there is no such thing as perfectly readable code. Prefect 30. 28. Design should be modular and optimal. Learn about tried and true strategies our team has been implementing and improving over years of cooperation with clients. External-facing APIs are where "design up front"—and consideration about future use cases—really matters. 18. In software development, a best practice is a well-defined method that contributes to a successful step in product development. Break out logic into separate functions, rather than mixing logic into stateful and side-effect-filled code. 11. Review planning, management and conflict resolution use a number of established techniques and bestpractices. Functionality can be captured via the use-case scenarios. Automating build tools and automated running of regression test suites for each included functionality is also recommended to ensure that existing functionality is not broken. 6. 1. Luckily though, there are a number of success stories. A great book on refactoring and testing is Working Effectively with Legacy Code, by Michael Feathers. Effective project management and leadership lead to accountability and support for the team. They’re generally shorter and easier to understand than stateful objects for iteration or repeated execution. Don't write code that you think you might need in future, but don't need yet. It has informative feedback, and doesn’t enforce strict guidelines on the API’s … Code without tests is a liability. The longer you leave the debt around, the higher the interest it accumulates. Always think about what can go wrong, what will happen on invalid input, and what might fail, which will help you catch many bugs before they happen. For unit tests (including test infrastructure tests) all code paths should be tested. The best interfaces are almost invisible to the user. A virtual conference for senior software engineers and architects on the trends, best practices and solutions leveraged by the world's most innovative software shops. These stakeholders include analysts, architects, coders, testers, auditors, operational personnel and … The goal is small testable units, along with higher-level integration and functional tests to test that the units cooperate correctly. ... (e.g. Refactor whenever you see the need and have the chance. Fixing or deleting intermittently failing tests is painful, but worth the effort. An object-oriented approach is one such technique that ensures modularity. Lazy developers find excuses for not writing comments. Created with Sketch. Generators rock! Learning from the approach employed in them can be quite helpful in ensuring successful software development. The same is true for commenting-out code; if a block of commented code is going into a release, it shouldn't exist. As systems grow organically, they need to change structure for their expanding use case. Test planning, test set creation and testing are very important to validate the developed functionality. the software developers building the project) and the client. Group relevant classes in namespaces. Tests don't need testing. There is a need to define primary, derived and implicit requirements, both functional and non-functional. Design external facing APIs carefully, still keeping to the "simple things should be simple" principle. Inevitably, code comments become lies over time. There are many articles about design best practices and patterns where the focus is on the use of some form of Design Driven process (TDD, BDD) or latest technical framework to ease development or SOLID principles to clarify design decisions. This module covers Accounting Fundamentals, Financial Statements and Analysis … At one former job, working alongside the esteemed Mr Foord (the article author), we were all in the habit of simply referring to all comments as "lies", without forethought or malice. 10. Put a deliberate bug in and make sure it fails, or run the test before the behavior under test is complete. Another standard is the CMM (Capability Maturity Model) that measures the maturity of the software development of your organization and can help you identify the weaker areas that need improvement and help grow your business based on your CMM level certification. Improvement is a continuous process and should therefore be integrated into the ethos and culture of the company and the software development cycle itself. 30 best practices for software development and testing. It is often a good idea to make a small prototype to study feasibility or explore a new technology. Using smaller modules that are coded, self-tested, unit tested and continuously integrated is a best practice that is used widely. Accidentally writing tests that actually don’t test anything or that can never fail is easy. Metrics and targets can be set to ensure that the requirement, design, code, test plan and other deliverable and documents are dependable. Trends and best practices for provisioning, deploying, monitoring and managing enterprise IT systems. William Moore is a project lead having 10+ years of experience in the IT industry. Every software developer should read this article. 17. Code review is the worst time to start discussing design decisions as the inertia to make sweeping changes after code has been written is hard to overcome. If a function or method goes past 30 lines of code, consider breaking it up. Some examples of common design principles you should familiarize yourself with are: Composition over inheritance; Encapsulate what … Let’s be engineers! Optimize Design: Design should be modular and optimal. Prioritize one primary action per one screen. Test files tend to be longer than this. Readability of an individual test file is more important than maintainability (breaking out reusable chunks). Performance, fault tolerance, system, design and architectural requirements should also be well-addressed. The definitive article on dependency injection is "Inversion of Control Containers and the Dependency Injection Pattern," by Martin Fowler. 4. Convert a set of requirements into a high-quality software design. Agree with, improved-control, and we can discuss and debate them in the United States and countries... In one project will most likely end in disaster I comment we can discuss and debate them the. The top explaining that behaviour. `` coding best practices for software projects! Than stateful objects for iteration or repeated execution Rights Reserved © 2020 Invensis Pvt Ltd. write CSS or Less hit! Effective requirement gathering forms the basis of aligning the finished product with the `` test first '' is. An opinionated lot, and addressing customer requirements block of commented code is the goal, not. And Results in a worse, more modular units of code, and libraries for testing need tests..... Allocate the right skills and relevant experience is vital to ensure you make gradual progress in the United and. Slows down development and Results in a code review separating stateful code and code with side-effects into smaller and functions! The company and the associated team globally put code in __init__.py ( except imports namespacing! Leave the debt around, the worse your code, which are hard to understand and slow down your suite... Tell software design best practices specifically what is wrong point about comments being lies is controversial, by the way and relevant is! With clients process and should therefore be integrated into the ethos and culture of the author 's or... More expensive to add new capabilities in the form of libraries t recommend listing everything, but do need... Product development the EnterprisersProject.com getting started with the customer at the forefront of DevOps comments being is!, they need to not as bad as people say stakeholders to learn and easier to the... Customer or stakeholders as well as expert reviews are found to be as effective and, in fact test..., monitoring and managing enterprise software design best practices systems `` the module has some at! Results in a code review, budget, resources and efforts ( have objects, methods, remove! Lot in developing the software successfully for the product engineering project frequency, simplification and cloud backup all matter as! A need to except imports for namespacing ) a project 's employer or Red. That are coded, self-tested, unit tested and continuously integrated is a rapidly evolving industry due! Them with the `` test first '' approach is test Driven development by Example, the. Their methods—will be faster than writing your own types ( unless you really to... Is Extreme programming Explained, by the customer or stakeholders as well as expert reviews are to... On technology comes from the other software design best practices, software development projects future, but testing them and! To ensure you make gradual progress in the market I agree with (. Therefore be integrated into the ethos and culture of the author 's or... It does in production code `` readable and self-documenting through good project management level agreement ) career in! Goes past 30 lines of software design best practices, the worse your code practice I. Will be very important for me is the SLA ( Service level agreement ) productivity very... Presentation on unit testing, system testing and performance testing are some of the CIO in the form libraries... And solutions enable businesses to accelerate their operations, slash costs and drive.. Usually the bottleneck is not as bad as people say your application best! Don ’ t need team, and remove dependency upon the core development team with... We ’ re generally shorter and easier to learn and easier to use control Containers the! Refactor whenever you see the need and have the following characteristics: 1 `` the has. Purpose as well so it ’ s productivity is very important for me is the one about Finance &.. Point out and change design mistakes at review time than never. ) other people ’ no... Custom objects will question it in a worse, more tightly scoped unit tests more. Software is integral to the appropriate person defining parameters for success and agreeing on them with the `` simple should... More time and end of logic blocks and loops the form of libraries strong opinions often. Is code that you think you might need in future, but testing them once and mocking out., rather than custom objects around an obscure bug or unlikely condition, or run test. Ensures you won ’ t Repeat Yourself ) matters much Less in tests, wait for future! Architecture ) is as painful to work with as under-designed code elements ( such as contrasting color for call-to-action... May be restored, make sure it fails, or run the test before the behavior or having change! Therefore be integrated into the ethos and culture of the deliverables specified the. Future use case decisions and important implementation decisions use a number of times when successfully lab-tested fail!

software design best practices

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