Gave rise to new opportunities for trade, commerce, and technology. The first line of his sonnet “On the Projected Kendal and Windermere Railway” demands “Is there no nook of English ground secure from rash assault?” (p. 1, Schwartz). Charles Dickens, “Coketown”, from Hard Times, 1854, as cited in editor Alasdair Clayre’s Nature and Industrialization, Oxford University Press, 1977, p. 125. Ruskin was also involved in Wordsworth’s battle to keep the Lakes District free of railway “contamination,” (see Punch caricature below). Most likely trains were not the center of the artist’s focus, but instead what is depicted is his impression of a city. Lynn & Fakenham and the Eastern & Midlands. “Marx and Engels on Ecology.”. This particular manipulation may have been most useful in attacking members of the upper class who did not (yet!) The Grasmere Journal. So, Parliament started focusing on improving canals. The technical artists entertained themselves with classifying the weaving machine as a new species, independent of a social context. With Ure in mind the image can be seen as a promotion of the growth of industry, there are no negative side effects shown, and what people really valued, nature, is still a part of life: Steam engines furnish the means not only of their support but of their multiplication. To retain our pre-eminent position, then as manufacturers for the world- a position which our improved machinery has principally enabled us to maintain so long…we would strongly and sincerely urge every individual of the society to lend his utmost aid in establishing and increasing their effectiveness; feeling assured that he would thereby assist, not merely to maintain the prosperity of the country, but greatly to increase it. Despite frequent references there is little information available on the sort of person he was. This composition, devoid of both action and emotion, presents the stark realities of industrialization. Andrew Ure, “The Blessings of the Factory System” from The Philosophy of Manufactures, 1835, as cited in editor Alasdair Clayre’s Nature and Industrialization, Oxford University Press, 1977, p.71. The artist is unknown, but it can be assumed that he/she was a person who looked favorably upon the growth of industry. Klingender discusses the later forms of mechanical artistry: For example, the upper half of such a plate may contain a general view of a tilt-forge with men at work, while the operative parts of the machinery and the tools used are shown separately below, just as in many contemporary botanical illustrations the stamen and petals are drawn separately from a general view of the plant (Klingender, 63). However, when considering the efforts applied to avoid such geographical intrusion less than a decade earlier, the growth rate is surprising. However, over the period of one month, 357 railway schemes were advertised in the same newspapers, their combined worth being estimated at £332 million. Another important aspect of the painting is the depiction of people in relation to the train. (p. 27, Newsome). Some took this misfortune as a portent against the “iron roads.”. The first time a railway used a true steam locomotive running on rails was the Liverpool to Manchester railway in 1830. By 1951 6,800 miles of railway track had been laid. Jackson, “the landlords thought much more of the peacefulness of their own estates and mansions than of the public good, and the mental picture of a railway with its tail of smoke curling across the countryside … was to them the symbol of all that was disagreeable, vulgarizing and mercenary.” (p. 497, Jackson) Of course, it was those very “vulgarizing and mercenary” people, who had invested heavily in railway expansion, who put forward egalitarian arguments about railway usage. Jonathan Wordsworth. All the first-class carriages except one plunged down into the river-bed below. In the Gare Saint-Lazare painting of 1877, Claude Monet depicted a scene that embraced growing industry and revealed the imposing impact that modernization made on the surrounding environment and natural world. Many worried that the enormous cuttings and embankments rendered necessary by the weakness of early locomotive engines would subside, taking houses and people along with them. In John Dyer’s poem, The Fleece (published in 1757), development is portrayed with excitement: New streets are marking in the neighb’ring fields, (148). 12/2/99. Which dignifies the artist, lifts the swain, Most of them recognized the opportunities that the new rails had to offer. The carriage driver in the background has turned his head to examine the train and even his horse has pricked up his ears and turned to gaze upon it. It seems though; that he makes these further statements to gain back the ‘face’ he may have lost with the people he offended with the first letter. With the building up of urban areas and unfurling of train tracks across the countryside, people’s lives were forever changed by the machine. Jenkins, W. J. English Railways: Their Development and Their Relation to the State. Like trees in forests,-spread through spacious tracts, 1835. The quality of the drawing is measured by the artist’s ability to become invisible. There is no working class pinned before the relentless speed of a locomotive. They also passed a law in 1844 ordering third class travel to be on at least one train a day, and the Gauge Act of 1846 to make sure the trains ran on the same sort of rails. The passage of the railway by Furness Abbey was the British one.” (pp. What they did do was allow the revolution to continue, provide further stimulus, and help to transform the mobility and diets of the population. New interpretations of the Bible brought us from the view in Tudor England that “the creatures were not made for themselves, but for the use and service of man” (18), to the view in the late 17th century that “God loves the creatures that creep on the ground as well as the best saints” (166). 1750s. Greater movement between the co… “The Baconian method,” says Merchant, “advocated power over nature through manual manipulation, technology, and experiment” (216). Within each image there are several aspects that exemplify this changing relationship: the portrayal of people, the representation of the smoke, the presence or lack there of nature, and the depiction of the train. The construction of railway lines: 1. Victorian Railways, Punch, and “Hudson’s Statue”. Did Cotton Drive the Industrial Revolution? Many of these arguments were ridiculed by transportation historians of the early twentieth century, and indeed by railway proponents of the day, but they deserve to be taken seriously. Railways were a symbol of change and progress. Over the work presides…(Klingender, 11). And again, many of those “railway kings” who pointed to the upper-classes as draconian and insensitive to the needs of the poor strongly resisted instituting penny-a-mile fares and other third-class conveyance schemes. The train is massive and imposing, dwarfing the people and making them merely small blobs of colored paint. During their first flush of expansion, railway lines inspired positive reactions by both poets and artists. The first antiquity to be saved from railway incursion as the result of protest by local people. In describing the Lamp of beauty in his work The Seven Lamps, Ruskin presented his own time as completely bereft of aesthetic value. Marx, Karl & Friedrich Engels. It also indicates that engineers may have had to endure a form of self-censorship much like artists today. Since the dramatic cuts of the 1960s following the Beeching Reports in 1963 and 1965 [massive railway line closures laid out by Richard Beeching, who was briefly chairman of the British Transport Commission], the railway network in Britain has remained largely the same size and shape. In contrast, John Dyer’s poem, The Fleece, concludes with a mesmerizing account of the machine as a mere tool for productivity. Sedgwick, John. According to Merchant, in the early 16th century with the rise of modern science and technology, mankind’s view of nature as a living being changed and nature became a machine to be dominated, dismantled and its secrets discovered, no matter what the cost. Railway “opposition,” tidy and homogenous as the term may sound, was not represented by a single, unified coalition, nor did it necessarily connote a similarity of argument among railway opponents. Nicholson, Norman. In 1801 the first Act of Parliament was passed for the creation of a ‘railway’, although at this point it was a horse pulled carts on rails. In some areas the ground under the tracks is darkly shaded, indicating that it is dirty. By appealing to the middle-class audience, the artist reduces the aesthetics of the machine to pure color. Atlas of Industrializing Britain, 1780-1914. An Epitome of the New Lines of Railway in England which Parliament Will Probably Sanction with Reasons for their Doing So. Published in popular, technical journals of the time, this blueprint appealed to the scientists as well as wider academia. Spin out, in long extent, an even twine…(Klingender, 21). Yet exactly how, and where, this great new power was to be harnessed was the topic of a continuing debate. Engineers George Stephenson saw new machines to be built and old records to conquer. It is interesting to note that although Monet started painting city scenes early on in his career, he rejected industry and the modern world and went on to only paint scenes of nature painting out the industrial aspects if they were part of the scene that he was painting. The machine was truly the new religion of the leisure class. 12/6/99. The influence of Charlton can be seen in the integration of urban and rural, the portrayal of the city folk enjoying the peace and beauty of the rural life. Landow, George P. Ruskin Caricaturized in Punch. Through examining the portrayal of smoke and dirt, or lack there of, it is obvious that this is a time when industry was still associated with the purity and cleanliness of nature. (40). Due to the surplus of bills, plans for potential railways, that were put before parliament many were never heard. The Victorian Web. [Pamphlet] London: Effingham Wilson, Railway Times Office, 1846. Nevertheless, in comparing their interpretations of the evidence and the presentation of their arguments concerning the history of mankind’s relationship with nature in Tudor and Stuart England through the Scientific and Industrial Revolutions, we find that they are quite different. Vaughon, Wendy. As Andrew Ure said, “Skilled labor gets progressively superseded, and will, eventually, be replaced by mere onlookers of machines”. Wordsworth’s infamous battle over the London and Northwestern’s Kendal and Windermere line was a product of the second Railway Mania. Newton Abbot: David and Charles [1968]. Proceeds are donated to charity. ed. The first has to do with changes to their canals. The machine is dazzling in its baby blue– simple and buoyant. O’erlooks the work: the carded wool, he says, Smith, Adam. In 1767 Richard Reynolds created a set of rails for moving coal at Coalbrookdale; these were initially wood but became iron rails. 1995 Sept. Durham, NC. New companies formed to both run railways and take advantage of the possibilities, and a major new employer was created. John Ruskin: The Passionate Moralist. The Railway Industry . The leisure class, from their elitist perspective, beckoned the industrial age as a final stage in the evolution of mankind. Steam engines moreover, by the cheapness and steadiness of their action, fabricate cheap goods, and procure in their exchange a liberal supply of the necessaries and comforts of life, produced in foreign lands.[1]. With the introduction of the Railway destinations became increasingly closer and time more valuable, or at least recognized as a limited resource. Man and the Natural World: Changing Attitudes in England 1500-1800. From the germ Almost all railway construction during this period was contested in one form or another, as each line had to be sanctioned by Parliament. Caused line works to be moved to Wolverton. In its purest depiction, this image is an encyclopedia-brand portrayal of the machine. By the 20th century, the British Empire was the biggest in history. Maidstone town in Kent, which the line would pass through, protested its construction. A flag pushes up from the brow of the arch triumphantly. In the Monet, we see the machine as an awesome beast to be obeyed and looked upon as an object of beauty. The success of this line and the financial success of men like George Hudson encouraged businessmen to speculate on new lines. Townships and local groups banded together with official bodies to organize protests against proposed lines, thereby leaving a history of cooperation between official and unofficial public interest groups. The steam engine, it turns out, also sparked innovative methods of transportation. What science seems to have done for the natural world, according to Thomas, is to bring mankind down from his self-appointed throne. Small, scattered railway development continued, but at the same time, the steam engine was evolving. He draws a correlation between Gallileo and the introduction of the steam engine; he counsels the people not repeat ‘mistakes’ of the past (8). This narrow perspective brings Godwin’s analogy to the persecution of Gallileo back to mind. A small part of nature still exists in this modern world of industry and reminds us that it is not overrun by ugly machines and destructive industry. In 1821 Stephenson built the Stockton to Darlington railway using iron rails and steam power with the aim of breaking the local monopoly of the canal owners. Interestingly enough, there were no lines built after 1876 (see appendix, map 1914) and the core of the Lake District remained untouched. World Wide Web: http://landow.stg.brown.edu/victorian/technology/railway2.html. These mechanical illustrations appealed to a distinguished audience; an audience with an immense confidence in the scientific method of investigation. [Pamphlet] 2nd Edition. This acceleration in the processes of technical innovation brought about an array of new tools and machines. It certainly is no big deal to have a small cruise along the canals or ride a train. London: T. Brettell, 1849. Wordsworth claims that with the influx of strangers the railway promises could potentially estrange the local poor and wreak moral havoc upon the Lake District, “There cannot be a doubt that the Sabbath day in the towns of Bowness and Ambleside, and other parts of the district, would be subject to much additional desecration” (Selincourt 155). Created: Jul 19, 2014 | Updated: Jul 26, 2014. Castle at Huntingdon and Clare destroyed by line. Gives necessary motion. In  1844, the proposed Kendal and Windermere rail line threatened to violate William Wordsworth’s precious lakes district. Photograph of a nineteenth-century locomotive / From Immigration, Railroads, and the West / Harvard University Library, Edited by Dr. Robert Schwartz Proposed lines threatened Maumbury Rings, which had successively been henge, ampitheatre, and Civil War fort. Wherever you can rest, there decorate, where rest is forgiven, so is beauty. However, industrialists soon realized that railways could make a clear profit, and in 1835-37, and 1844-48 there was such a boom in the creation of railways that ‘railway mania’ was said to have swept the country. It carries people from the city of Paris to the surrounding suburbs, and does not carry goods like coal and iron ore. Roger Osborne, the author of Iron, Steam and Money: The Making of the Industrial Revolution (2013) has argued: "Stephenson was a brilliant builder of locomotives, his greatest contribution was to bring engines and railways together. The Victorian Railway. To plead their case, railway proponents produced materials to argue their own point of view: one G. Godwin was moved to pen “An appeal to the public on the subject of railways” in 1837, and in 1849 R.M. Not in vain the distance beacons. Indeed, the owner of the canal had opposed the railway to protect his investment. — Mr. Deane to Tom Tulliver in George Eliot, The Mill on the Floss. “Britain could not have become, for a time, the world’s dominant economic power without them. And the straw cottage to a palace turns, A system of railway hearings was established in the House of Lords, requiring companies to weigh the potential benefit and harm of their proposed schemes.