IRS was mainly concerned with trade unions, management and the government. This style of management was survived under the Laissez Faire policy. Behaviour at work gets influenced by the quality of human relations management and the nature of technology. The role of the State and political parties have also been redefined in the light of these changes. Industrial Relations as a Social System** The article starts with a criticism of John Dunlop’s systems theory of industrial relations. Policy matters relating to employees in Central Public Sector Undertakings on payment of statutory dues of workers, impact of disinvestments and restructuring of PSUs on employees, improvements in Voluntary Retirement Scheme / Separation Scheme, etc.). Workers were provided with poor, unsafe working conditions and meager incomes. He presented and analytical framework of industrial relations in his book titled ‘Industrial Relations System’ (1958). All other objectives revolve around it. (ii) To raise productivity to a higher level by arresting the tendency of higher labour turnover and frequent absenteeism. The central made unions or Federations bargain for their members on national level in determining the share in the gross national product. ix. focuses primarily on bargaining as a mechanism for the resolution of conflicts. Thus, Dunlop developed his theoretical approach of industrial relations on the basis of a systems concept and was heavily influenced by the prior work of Parsons (Fajana, 2000). future relationship of the parties. It goes without saying that the pragmatic policies on various aspects of HRM, including industrial relations, are the cornerstone of happy labour- management relations. In some cases, the representatives has been put on the Board of Directors (in banking industry). The regulation of employer- employee relationship by the government is another important factor for the smooth industrial relations. So, the transaction occurring through such mechanism is either complementary or cross. iv. The state of Maharashtra has already passed a law for the creation of a sole bargaining agency in every unit and industry. They have started taking more realistic stand on the issues relating to industries, keeping in view the existing social norms and international practices. The systems approach to industrial relations is configurational. Promotion of collective bargaining and establishment of a fair and independent machinery for the peaceful settlement of industrial disputes are the pre-requisites for good industrial relations in the modern industrialised world. Social factors such as – social values, social groups and social status also influence the industrial relations. In private enterprises, there has been decentralizing tendencies. Sometimes, they turn violent. It is thus related to the basic social sciences as engineering is to the physical sciences or medicine is to the biological sciences. The second issue relates to the gaps that are occurring as a result of the various that occur in central and state legislations as far as labour matters are concerned. Now a days industrial relations are determined by power 6. The prominent contribution to the industrial, relations literature is the ‘systems’ approach developed by John T. Dunlop who views. This approach, emphasises individualism and the direct relationship between management and its, employees. The Ideology of an Industrial Relations System: sufficiently compatible and consistent so as to permit a common set of ideas and an acceptable role for each actor. The second aspect. The focus is on the resolution of conflict rather than its generation, or, in, the words of the pluralist, on ‘the institutions of job regulation.’ Kerr is one of the, important exponents of pluralism. iv. Establishing democratic values in the organisation right from the shop-floor level. (vi) It must be ensured that the grievances are promptly settled at the level of plant/workshop. It is important to develop the collective bargaining approach, a process through which employee issues are settled through mutual discussions. Flanders, the exponent of this approach, considers every business enterprise as a social system of production and distribution, which has a structured pattern of Conceptual Framework of relationships. He observed that collective bargaining is the greatest social invention that has institutionalized industrial conflict. Implementation of awards under the Industrial Disputes Act. vii. Pluralism is a major theory in labour-management relations, which has many powerful, advocates. The perceptions of management and the trade union may differ because the same position may appear entirely different to the other party. The worker is regarded as an ‘adult’ employee (and not as a child) with rights and view of his own. The concept of the system has been influential in establishing industrial relations as a discipline in its. Priority Issues in Labour-Management Relations: We shall now discuss the priority issues in labour-management relations. Encourage contributions from the employees, vii. In this sense, the unions act as the enemies of the economic system. It increases the place of workers in the society and their ego is satisfied. Reducing wastage by handling raw materials efficiently, ii. A series of labour laws were passed regulating payment of wages, working conditions to factories, mines and plantations, compensation in case of injury on work and also enabling them to form unions of their own. The employer in his turn must realize that the gains of industry are not for him alone but they should be shared equally and generously with his workers. Further, the government prefers long-term settlement and brings to link pay with performance of both the workers as well as the public enterprises. ii. They claim that there has been a decline in strike activity all, over the world in spite of an increase in union membership. They have also asserted that either industrial relations or personnel administration is primarily concerned with all functions relating man effectively to his environment. Thus, the action theory analysis of industrial relations focuses primarily on bargaining as a mechanism for the resolution of conflicts. The concept of industrial relations began to gain in importance. Marxist Approach to Industrial Relation 1. Management must learn and know the basic needs of the man and should always try to win the people. So, gradually the Government assumed a protective or paternalistic attitude towards labour. Problems are solved through mutual discussions, workers’ participation, suggestion schemes, joint meeting, etc. The labour-management co-operation efforts should involve all employees. Lecturer in Industrial Relations, University of Lancaster, England. It also set up further employment generation programmers. The rules change in response to change in the contexts and relative status of the actors. Such peace can be established only when the following rights and privileges are enjoyed by the State and facilities for bipartite or tripartite consultation machinery for resolving disputes if any, are provided –. The industrial relations system in an organisation, works in the context of pressures, tensions and conflicts, and is mainly related to, power politics, economic, cultural and other differences. ii. Fox distinguishes between two distinct aspects of relationship between workers and, management. Margerison developed two conceptual levels of industrial relation-one at intra-plant level and the other outside the firm. It is the business of leadership in the ranks of workers, employees and Govern­ment to work out a new relationship in consonance with a spirit of democracy. Future 20. ‘actors’, the ‘contexts’ and the ‘ideology’ of the system. If the twin objectives of rapid national development and increased social justice are to be achieved, there must be harmonious relationship between management and labour. 1. The various systems might comprise of different forms of such rules and regulations. In this approach, industrial relations is, equated with a power-struggle. Marxism is essentially a method of social enquiry into the power relationships of society and a way of interpreting social reality. (b) The provision of the bipartite and tripartite forums for the settlement of disputes must be made. ii. Many organisations encouraged worker participation to counter the challenges posed by the rapidly changing business environment. The courts have upheld the privatization of public sectors (BALCO case), despite the protests by public sector workers. This style has survived up till today. (ix) The environmental factors do not by themselves bring peace but they create conditions to develop it, so it must never be ignored. Instead of demanding higher wages and improved working conditions, trade unions are now-a-days pressing for maintenance of existing benefits and claims for non-payment of agreed wages and amenities. Good industrial relations depend upon a large number of factors/conditions. Hence, such policies need to be designed or timely revised for maintaining good industrial relations in an organisation. South west Airlines is known for its labour-management relations. The actors operate within a framework. Subject:Human Resource Management Paper: Industrial Relations and Labour Legislation ... Systems … The government has also been an active agent in maintaining and establishing industrial relations. Changing Trends in Labour Management Relations: Before industrialisation, one couldn’t even dream of cordial labour-management relations. v. Rendering advice/clarification in matters of withdrawal/derecognition of unions, criteria for recognition of unions, verification procedure rights and privileges of recognized and unrecognized unions etc. This feeling may further industrial peace. Closely, related to Weber’s concern related to control in organisations was his concern with, “power of control and dispersal”. According to him, employers should not regard themselves as sole owners of, mills and factories of which they may be the legal owners. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge About 85-90% of the employees are members of the unions. These committees organise various cultural activities. It changes ownership, which bring changes in the work organization and employment and also in the trade union dynamics. However, this approach rejects the special emphasis given to rule, determination by the “systems and Oxford models”. ii. (6) The Government/State also regulates the industrial relations in the country. The main theme behind the concept of industrial relation is to recognise the fact that labour is a human being and not a commodity and, therefore, it should be treated as living being. He insisted on recognising each individual worker as a human, being. a. Beliefs within the system which not only define the role of each actor or groups of actors but also define the view that they have of the role of other actors in the system. We can have three parties or participants or actors in an industrial unit: The total work plays an important role in industrial relations. ii. He had immense faith in the goodness of man and believed that many of the evils of the modern world have been brought about by wrong systems and not by wrong individuals. According to him, collective bargaining is central to the industrial relations system. Trust and co-operation are essential in labour relations. New and new projects are introduced for the welfare of the workers and to promote the morale of the people at work. 2. 3. play the role of a partner in social control of industries, where the representatives of workers sit on the Board of Management and participate in all kinds of decision-making. Its role has been changing from time to time. Gandhiji advocated peaceful co-existence of capital and labour. followed this style of management in the initial years. One will not get any benefit unless he is member of a union, this type of role is not played in any other country. Therefore management should avoid these situations and expert services of other behavioural scientists should be taken if necessary to deal with such situations. These theorists, stress on employee motivation, attitude and morale, styles of supervision, and forms of, A.W.J. Giri Approach gave emphasis that industrial peace might be secured through machinery of collective bargaining. New employment opportunities are declining in organized public sector industries. Few emerging trends in the collective bargaining process are: i. Therefore, it is important to recognise, understand, and resolve conflicts in labour relations. Industrial relations are good when there is boom and prosperity all round. The management look upon such strategies as a weapon to gain control over production process and weaken their collective bargaining. Under this role, trade unions represent the interests of their fellow workers before the management and bargain on their behalf with the management at all levels—particularly at the plant level, industry-wise or in some small countries (such as Sweden, Norway, Austria etc.) (b) Collective relations between trade unions and management. These tripartite bodies aim at solving the industry specific problems related to workers in the Sugar industry, Cotton, Textile industry, Electricity Generation and Distribution, Jute industry, Road transport, engineering industry and Chemical industry. They must be aware of their responsibility towards the organisation and the community at large. Collective bargaining as per this approach is considered as a political institution involving power relationships between the employer and the employees. The industry appoints the ‘whole person’. Some even go to the extent of anarchist view of overthrowing the whole economic system with a. view to bringing about a wholesale change in the system. Systems theory in the study of industrial relations: time for a reappraisal? Every human being wants freedom of speech, self-respect, and to enjoy all those facilities for which he is entitled for. vi. To ensure industrial peace and avoid laobur unrest like strikes, gheraos, demonstrations, slogan shouting, work stoppages etc. Labour was considered a commodity. The establishment of good industrial relations depends on the constructive attitude on the part of both management and union. The reasons for the failure of these schemes need to be probed into. i. The theorising in this field has developed in the direction of (a) environmental or external theories, and (b) internalists or in-plant theories. In his model, the actors and the context are similar to those of Dunlop’s, model. 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